Olympic Dam is a unique deposit of complex gold-uranium-copper ores in both reserves and genesis terms, located in South Australia, 500 km northwest of Adelaide. It was established in 1975, while the industrial operation was launched in the late 1980s.
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The deposit contains almost 40% of the total world proven uranium reserves.
Olympic Dam deposit is located on the eastern Australian platform edge, in the Middle Proterozoic basement structures while being covered by of undiluted adelaide sediments (both middle and upper riphean) and Cambrian. It spatially tends to intersect the northwestern and northeastern strike lineaments while being confined to a large trough or graben in the basement, made by non-metamorphosed underlying granites breccias and middle riphean volcanic rocks, hematitized, chloritized, as well as serialized to different degrees.
The multistage-polygenic stratiform deposit is the close lyses series on an area of 20-28 km2 with a vertical mineralization range of 300 - 350 m.; the total ore intervals thickness is 100 - 210 m. Ore bodies occur at 350 to 650 - 1000 m depth.
Two main stages are distinguished in the field formation: brecciation and mineralization, closely related to the Middle Proterozoic volcanic activity.
Containing 3.6 g/t, gold is concentrated in locally isolated ore zones, gravitating toward copper-uranium mineralization. Both silver and dispersed impurity, are available both in their native form as well as in the silver mineral argentite proper form; the same as gold, it is confined to copper mineralization.
Lihir deposit is located on Lihir Island, Papua, New Guinea, being formed as the volcanic activity result.
Today, about 3 000 local residents are employed in industrial development, which is ¼ of the total Lihir island’s population. Mine reserves are truly huge and amount to over 28 million ounces. The reserves are estimated at 43 million ounces by the experts. Lihir island is quite popular among tourists, while being famous by its charming beaches and natural beauties. Recently, the gold deposit became one of the main island’s sights.
Gold deposits on the island were discovered in 1982. The mine construction started in 1983 and was completed in 1995.
Lihir is an open pit mine. Most of the ore is refractory, while being processed by using the autoclave oxidation method. Gold is mined by leaching. The company was modernized some time ago, namely a new crushing station was installed and the mill infrastructure was improved, which contributed to further plans to increase equipment reliability, productivity and reduce production costs as well. Lihir processed 10.3 million tons of ore and produced 21.8 tons of gold in 2018.
Boddington gold and copper mine are located 13 km northwest of Boddington, Western Australia. The mine became Australia's largest gold mine, outshining the Super Pit, and was officially opened on February 3, 2010.
A mineral reserve of about 20 million ounces was discovered. Therefore, the facility expansion, allowing mining and processing basement rocks, has been approved. The expansion project construction started on May, 2011. The mine became Australia's largest gold mine, when it was assumed, that once it would reach full capacity.
East Rand is a gold mine located in the Witwatersrand Basin of Boksburg, east of Johannesburg. It is the deepest mine in the world at a depth of 3,585 meters, which is a little more than TauTona mine, till 2008.
The mine was modernized in 2008. Historically the gold production, which lasted from 1896 to 2008, was 43 million ounces with a gold grade of 8.1 g/t mined (95% mining at the plant).
A world-class high-grade gold deposit with existing resources (in accordance with SAMREC) was 63 million ounces, including:
- Measured and indicated resources of 13.6 million ounces at 6.7 g/t of gold.
- Estimated resources of 50 ounces at 4.92 g / t gold.
Work is currently suspended.
Klerksdorp is one of the largest gold mines in both South Africa and in the world. Mining started in 1886, hereby contributed to the «gold rush» start. Ore reserves are currently estimated at 11.02 million ounces of gold.
The mine is located on Klerksdorp gold mine of the world-famous Witwatersrand basin. Late Archean age Witwatersrand basin is a golden region, consisting of an sand and clay deposits inter-row sequence.
The underground mine includes gold and uranium reserves. The mine is expected to produce 426,000 ounces per year by 2020.
The mine reconstruction was carried out in 2011, which resulted in the gold ore mining increase.
Proved and probable mine reserves are estimated at 5.7 million ounces of gold as well as 27.32 million tons of uranium with a grade of 6.12 g/t and 0.24 lb/t, respectively.
The measured and indicated resources in the mine include 11.02 million ounces of gold and 35.45 million tons of uranium with a grade of 10.67 g/t and 0.44 lb/t, respectively. Estimated resources are estimated at 7.5 million ounces of gold with a gradation of 11.36 g/t. Klerksdorp is both the Northwest Province economic center as well as one of the gold mining industry centers in South Africa. It is expected to become a major uranium producer in future